YOU AND YOUR NEIGHBOURHOOD
City on Water
VISTARA: The architecture of India
1986 Scriptwriter for Audio-Visual ‘VISTARA: The Architecture of India’
The Blessings of the Sky
1995 Scriptwriter and Director for Video ‘The Blessings of the Sky’
Book Release Discussants
Rahul Mehrotra is the founder principal of RMA Architects. He divides his time between working in Mumbai and Boston and teaching at the Graduate School of Design at Harvard University where he is Professor of Urban Design and Planning and the John T. Dunlop Professor in Housing and Urbanization. Mehrotra is a member of the steering committee of the Laxmi Mittal South Asia Institute at Harvard.
In 2012-2015, he led a Harvard University-wide research project with Professor Diana Eck, called The Kumbh Mela: Mapping the Ephemeral Mega City. This work was published as a book in 2014. This research was extended in 2017 in the form of a book titled Does Permanence Matter? This research was also extended into an invited exhibition at the 2016 Venice Biennale.
Mehrotra co-authored a book titled Taj Mahal: Multiple Narratives which was published in Dec 2017. His latest book to be released in early September 2020 is titled Working in Mumbai and is a reflection on his 30 years of practice and interrogates the notion of context to understand how the practice evolved through its association with the city of Bombay/Mumbai.
Cristina is a noted art historian and publisher who spent more than a decade at Hatje Cantz, a world-leading publisher of visual arts, photography and architecture. Cristina possesses deep industry expertise, having served as the Managing Director of Hatje Cantz where she was fully responsible for the operational and strategic management of the company. A keen interest in the arts motivated her to pursue a PhD in Art and Architectural History from the Christian-Albrechts-Universität zu Kiel followed by an MBA from the prestigious TUM School of Management..
ArchiTangle is a Berlin-based independent publishing house and digital service provider in the architectural space, focusing on knowledge transfer and projects of social relevance. Dedicated to cultural and ethical values in architecture, ArchiTangle’s publishing program spans the entire architecture spectrum and aims to foster the dissemination of architectural knowledge through analogue tradition and digital innovation. ArchiTangle’s digital services include a novel blockchain-based archiving platform that will enable architects, architecture institutions, archives and collections to securely preserve the integrity of architectural data in perpetuity.
Ranjit Hoskote has been acclaimed as a seminal contributor to Indian art criticism and curatorial practice, and is also a leading Anglophone Indian poet. Hoskote was the curator of India’s first-ever national pavilion at the Venice Biennale (2011). He co-curated the 7th Gwangju Biennale with Okwui Enwezor and Hyunjin Kim (2008).
Among his curatorial projects are three transhistorical and trans-genre exhibitions developed for the Serendipity Arts Festival, Goa: Terra Cognita? (2016), Anti-Memoirs (2017), and The Sacred Everyday (2018)
Along With Rahul Mehrotra and Kaiwan Mehta, Hoskote co-curated the exhibition-conference platforms The State of Architecture: Practices and Processes in India (National Gallery of Modern Art, Bombay, 2016) and State of Housing: Aspirations, Imaginaries and Realities (Max Mueller Bhavan, Bombay, 2018).
He is the author of more than 30 books, including Vanishing Acts: New & Selected Poems 1985-2005 (Penguin, 2006), Central Time (Penguin/ Viking, 2014), Jonahwhale (Penguin/ Hamish Hamilton, 2018), and The Atlas of Lost Beliefs (Arc, 2020)
Kaiwan Mehta, is a theorist and critic in the fields of visual culture, architecture, and city studies. Kaiwan has studied Architecture (B. Arch), Literature (MA), Indian Aesthetics (PGDip) and Cultural Studies (PhD). In 2017 he completed his doctoral studies at the Centre for the Study of Culture and Society, Bengaluru, under the aegis of Manipal University. Since March 2012 he has been the Managing Editor of Domus India (Spenta Multimedia). He is also Professor and coordinator of the Doctoral Programme at the Faculty of Architecture, CEPT, Ahmedabad since 2017; and part of the CEPT University Press since 2018. He was the Charles Correa Chair professor at the Goa College of Architecture under the aegis of the Department of Art and Culture, Government of Goa for the academic year 2017-2018.
He authored Alice in Bhuleshwar: Navigating a Mumbai Neighbourhood (Yoda Press. New Delhi, 2009) and The Architecture of I M Kadri (Niyogi. New Delhi, 2016). Mehta co-curated with Rahul Mehrotra and Ranjit Hoskote the national exhibition on architecture ‘The State of Architecture: Practices and Processes in India ‘ (UDRI. 2016) at the National Gallery Modern Art, Mumbai and ‘State of Housing – Aspirations, Imaginaries, and Realities in India’ (UDRI. 2018). He has been elected as the Jury Chairman for two consecutive terms (2015-17 and 2017-2019) for the international artist’s residency programme across 13 disciplines at the Akademie Schloss Solitude in Stuttgart, Germany. He has been curating the Urban Design and Architecture section of the Kala Ghoda Arts Festival, Mumbai since 2016.
Rajesh Vora, a graduate of the National Institute of Design, India, began his career in Visual Communications and has been photographing for over 30 years. A deep-rooted interest in the environment and disappearing habitats have influenced his photographic practice. Vora worked as a photographer with COLORS magazine for over 15 years and often contributed as a researcher and writer. Commissioned to document architecture projects in India and Bangladesh with social relevance, for The Aga Khan Award for Architecture Foundation, Geneva.
His concern with urban issues led to myriad collaborations and projects with architects, environmentalists and filmmakers espousing critical views on the social, cultural and political situation in India. His ongoing project, Everyday Baroque, exhibited in 2016 at Photoink Gallery, New Delhi, takes him to Punjab to document the homes of the Punjabi Non-resident Indians.
Dennis Pieprz: Jury Chair
Dennis plays a leading role in the planning and urban design practice of Sasaki. His 30 years of both national and international experience encompass diverse project types including urban districts, new communities, campus environments, waterfronts, and urban regeneration.
Through his design practice, Dennis focuses on strategic thinking and creating value for clients. He approaches his urban design work collaboratively, integrating landscape, planning, and architecture with a critical understanding of the forces that shape contemporary cities.
At the Harvard Graduate School of Design, Dennis has taught a studio focused on the Boston Innovation District and in 2018, he taught in the Elements of Urban Design Studio. Dennis is one of 12 leading urban design practitioners interviewed for the book, ‘Designing Change’ by Eric Firley, published by the Dutch publishing group NAI in 2019.
Dennis leads remarkable teams that have been honored with more than 75 design awards, including national recognition from the American Institute of Architects, the American Society of Landscape Architects, and the Society for College and University Planning. Dennis has been inducted as an honorary member of ASLA—a title bestowed upon only a handful of professionals nationwide. Dennis also served as the youngest president of Sasaki from 2004 until 2011.
Educated at the Harvard Graduate School of Design (Master of Architecture in Urban Design, with Distinction, Thesis Prize) and the University of Toronto School of Architecture (Bachelor of Architecture, with Honors, Royal Architectural Institute of Canada Medal), Dennis speaks regularly at conferences and academic institutions and has participated on several international design competition juries.
Shimul Javeri Kadri
Shimul’s design practice has strong philosophical underpinnings, Egalitarian democratic societies, a deep respect for nature and living with it, and a fundamental belief in people and their connectedness drives her world view. This translates to buildings that sit comfortably and naturally in their environments – shorn of a certain egotistic individualistic character – buildings that embrace natural materials, the sun and the wind, as opposed to mechanized boxes that alienate people and nature.
Her interest in an architecture that is meaningful for the India of today, drawing from historical wisdom, but relevant and exciting for the vibrant Indian market, has led to a practice that has commissions as varied as hotels for religious tourism, to a museum for Jainism, to an automobile design studio for Mahindra’s.
Shimul is on the committee for Gender inclusive development for the Municipal Corporation of Greater Mumbai (the first of its kind in India) and gives inputs and suggestions that will help women negotiate and work in the city of Mumbai.
Shimul studied architecture in Mumbai at the Academy of Architecture, and Urban Planning at the University of Michigan Ann Arbor. She is invited as a speaker to numerous architectural institutions while she also serves as a Trustee for Save the Children India where she has been actively steering education and women’s projects. She is also on the Board of Directors of Akshara, a Women’s resource Centre.
Gurjit Singh Matharoo
Gurjit Singh Matharoo has been a significant figure in contemporary Indian architecture practice. His firm, Matharoo Associates (founded in 1992) has received numerous international awards including Chicago Athenaeum Architecture Awards in 2011, multiple awards from the Architectural Review and a nomination for the Aga Khan Award in 2009. He has been chosen as one of seven trend breaking architects by the ETH Zurich, Switzerland in 2011 and is widely published. In 2012 he was conferred the title of International Fellow of Royal Institute of British Architects (IntFRIBA). He is only the third Indian architect to be inducted in this fellowship and one of the youngest recipients of this lifetime honour.
Gurjit is well known for his inspiring materialization and search of cutting edge architectural solutions with acute attention to functionality and detail. He is deeply passionate about the mechanics and design of automobiles.
He has been teaching as visiting faculty since 1991 both at CEPT University and at the National Institute of Design in Ahmedabad. Between 2016 and 2019, he was appointed as Professor and Area Chair for Architectural Design in the Faculty of Architecture at CEPT.
Gurjit Singh Matharoo obtained his Architecture Degree from CEPT University. He has been a Juror on several important awards and competitions over the past two decades, including the Charles Correa Gold Medal.
Nadine Gerdts explores the cultural and environmental dynamics of urban landscapes through her research, design and academic practices. A senior critic and lecturer at RISD since 1995, she addresses contemporary issues in landscape and urbanism through interdisciplinary studios and seminars that link social, cultural and environmental issues to design. She has worked extensively with youth in urban public schools and with neighborhood organizations on projects that strengthen the livability of cities.
Gerdts has directed such interdisciplinary projects as the Public Health + Public Space Initiative focused on the Olneyville neighborhood of Providence and InsideOut Studio developing site-specific design projects with teens and youth in Boston and Providence public schools. Her current research projects include Lines of Equity – Post-Industrial Urban Corridors, a study of bicycle use and neighborhood transformation, and Beyond Borders: Urban Futures, a collaboration at the intersection of design, planning, climate science and technology with partners at Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences at Alnarp, supported with a Swedish Foundation for International Cooperation in Research and Higher Education, STINT Initiation Grant. Locally, she is a member of the Boston Society of Landscape Architects K-12 Outreach Committee working to connect youth with environmental issues and serves annually as a reviewer for the Boston Arts Academy Visual Arts Department senior portfolio reviews.
Gerdts’ early work was instrumental in securing permanent open space legislation protecting urban gardens in Boston’s South End and Roxbury neighborhoods, where she was director of community design with Boston Urban Gardeners. As a Fulbright researcher in the Nordic countries, she developed a deep interest in public landscapes and neighborhood fabric. She advocates for citizen-based projects promoting innovation in the civic realm and as the appointed chair of her town’s citizen tree board has helped with the oversight of the community’s urban forest of more than 50,000 trees.
Architect and Urban Designer Bijoy is the co-founding partner with Sunitha Kondur at Hundredhands, a multi-disciplinary design studio based in Bangalore, established in 2003. Having worked on a wide variety of projects ranging from café interiors to apartment buildings and institutions, the studio’s design approach is rooted in focusing on the urban context through the medium of scale, character, spatial and visual impact, and the remaking of the public domain.
Hundredhands has won multiple awards which include an official selection for the Project South Exhibition and the Leone di Pietra at the Venice Biennale, 2006, and the Cityscape/Architectural Review Award in 2005. Bijoy was a panelist at the annual all-India undergraduate thesis review, the Kurula Varkey Design Forum, at CEPT, Ahmedabad, in 2006 and 2014, he currently serves as the Post-Graduate Design Chair at the BMS College of Architecture, Bangalore.
Bijoy has a Bachelor’s degree in Architecture from BMS College, Bangalore University (1994), a Master’s degree from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, USA, in Architecture & Urbanism (1998) and attended the Glenn Murcutt Master Class (2012).
By Kalpit Ashar and Mayuri Sisodia
The project looks at a specific solution for a specific situation in Mumbai with great cultural detailing. The study and analysis is rich, and the team has adopted a lot of different techniques in order to negotiate an incredibly complex neighbourhood.
Due to the density and tempo of the site, the intervention is mobile and exploratory. The development of hyper-specific solutions and configurations for different street interfaces is appreciated. Simultaneously, the broader idea of reclaiming sidewalks as public space in one of Mumbai’s more busy streets is also commendable. The engagement with citizens and government stakeholders in order to prepare a participatory plan is critical in Indian urban spaces.
Due to its scale, and the nature of the context that this project sits within, we commend it with the ‘You and Your Neighbourhood’ Jury Award.
You can watch the presentation by the team here:
REDEFINING THE CITY FOR THE PUBLIC
By Purvi Chhadva
The project has been awarded for the gesture of reclaiming open space in the city of Ahmedabad, where there is not much available. It is incredibly tactical, as it employs minimal means, namely, occupying vacant land, re-aligning the road and planting some trees, yet the project has the potential to bring about a considerable change. It is a democratic project, as it focuses on play spaces for young children and their caregivers, and also very believable, as the landscape urbanism approach that has been conceptualised does not require a lot of resources.
This strategy addresses a universal problem and helps to imagine that in a consolidated, dense city, one can still transform the leftovers into public space.
You can watch the presentation by the team here:
By Aishwarya Gupta
The project works with a new urban condition, increasingly prevalent in large Indian cities, created by overground metro lines and station buildings that connect the users of this infrastructure with the city.
It rightly recognises that mass transit brings millions of workers in and out of the city every day and that our cities do not accommodate this floating population. By giving space to the ubiquitous informal enterprises that otherwise occupy the interstices of the dominant spatial order, the proposal provokes strong sentiments, seeking to expand the imagination of a metro station and to argue that it can be the occasion for pursuing equitable development. Through a Lefebvrian ‘production of space’ and deft handling of ‘place-making’, the proposal draws us into debates about the commons and their productive role in cities without questioning infrastructure as an urban necessity.
The proposal has been prepared with empathy and attention to detail, evident both in graphic quality and ideological stance, which makes a compelling case for imagining urban infrastructure as an architectural context and rendering it as a catalytic event.
COMMONS AND THE CITY
By Kapilan Chandranesan and Vijaykumar Sengottuvelan
The Trichy Commons Network proposal is a project of design intelligence and legibility. It identifies an urban condition that applies to many cities and towns, not only across India, but around the world. On the periphery of Trichy, the Uyyakondian canal is transformed from a neglected sewage dump into a community asset where the revitalized canal becomes an agent of connection for the people who live beside it. The proposal works across several scales in many ways through a series of design interventions tactically positioned along the canal.
Collectively, these interventions act as catalysts that could trigger major positive change over time. The scheme’s originality is in its combination of these diverse urban elements. There is an expansiveness about the project that is based in both gritty realism and a forward-looking spirit. Careful attention was paid to the site context. The scheme embodies an approach that works at the intersection of urbanism and environmental responsibility, through citizen activism. In recognizing this project, we offer our support for its continuation and eventual implementation.
You can watch the presentation by the team here:
STREETS IN THE NEIGHBOURHOOD
By Sushma Aradhya
The well conserved, historic and vibrant neighbourhood of Fontainhas, the old Latin quarter in Panaji, Goa, has always lacked a public waterfront despite being flanked by the Rio de Ourém creek and the Mandovi river. This project seeks to widen Rio de Ourém, that runs along the eastern edge of the Fontainhas, to create a new public promenade. This will enable the lively and winding streets of this 200-year old, dense settlement to culminate into an expansive, linear public space, stimulating social and cultural events along the water’s edge.
The project is well presented, with a series of thoughtful ideas to activate promenade life. The Jury appreciates its sensitivity at both the architectural and urban scales, which makes the proposal desirable and seemingly achievable. If done well, the project would add valuable public space to the historic fabric of Panaji.
You can watch the presentation by the team here:
HOMES IN THE STREETS
By Sindhuja and Nandja Chopra
The project is very flexible, and does not require any land. Through a bold proclamation of reappropriating space for the expression of collective culture, the project is an unapologetic call for collective action. The development of a kit of parts provides a framework by which the city may be built by citizens themselves in an imaginative way.
The use of urban farming for spaces in-between buildings is commended. The spirit of collectivism, while romantic, is attractive, and the idea of using a cheap, easily available material like bamboo is interesting.
You can watch the presentation by the team here:
“Adequate housing was recognized as part of the right to an adequate standard of living in the 1948 Universal Declaration of Human Rights and in the 1966 International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights.”1
Housing as a concept is not limited to shelter, or having a roof over your head. And it’s not a matter of affordability either. Housing is one of the most important life components giving shelter, safety and warmth, as well as providing a place to rest with dignity and security. The right to housing adequacy attempts to holistically develop the concept of housing such that it moves beyond the number game of space and affordability to present a list of key elements that need to be considered to make housing adequate.
Adequate housing is universally viewed as one of the most basic human needs. The right to adequate housing is one of the economic, social and cultural rights to have gained increasing attention and promotion, not only from the human rights bodies but also from the United Nations Centre for Human Settlements. The United Nations Declaration on Social Progress and Development (1969) and the United Nations Vancouver Declaration on Human Settlements (1976) recognize a universal right to adequate housing. The right to adequate housing includes ensuring access to adequate services, extending but not limited to seven important elements: legal security of tenure, availability of services, materials, facilities and infrastructure, affordability, habitability, accessibility, location and cultural adequacy.
What do these terms mean? Consider “security of tenure”, a major obstacle to ensuring this facet of adequate housing is eviction. “Protection against forced evictions is a key element of the right to adequate housing and is closely linked to security of tenure.”1 According to the 2011 Census, there are 1.77 million homeless people in India which make up around 0.15% of the population. A report published by the Housing and Land Rights Network (HLRN), estimates that about 190,000 Indian people get evicted from their homes every year. and as many as 14.9 million face a threat of eviction and displacement. To counter this extreme condition of urbanity, the right to housing adequacy insists that Nations take responsibility to ensure that evictions are only permitted in exceptional circumstances, and adhere to the UN Basic Principles and Guidelines on Development-based Evictions and Displacement, the International policy along with reinforcement through National and State level law and governance intends to provide protection to vulnerable persons and affected groups.
The right to adequate housing attempts to establish the connection between health and dwelling, it recognizes that secure shelter and basic sanitation are essential for living a healthy and stable life. Key elements to recognize housing adequacy include the availability of services, materials, facilities and infrastructure. “In India it is estimated that 17 percent of the urban population currently has no access to any sanitary facilities at all, while 50–80 percent of wastewater is disposed of without any treatment.”2 Furthermore, a WaterAid report in 2016 ranked India among the worst countries in the world for the number of people without safe water. An estimated 76 million people in India have no access to a safe water supply, and the situation is only getting more serious. The right to adequate housing ensures that housing encompasses sustainable access to natural and common resources, clean drinking water, energy for cooking, heating and lighting, sanitation and washing facilities, site drainage and emergency services.
Housing has always been closely associated with affordability. The case of India is particularly lacking in this regard. The Urban Housing Shortage (households) in 2012 was 18.78 Million, 56% of this total came from the economically weaker section with a monthly income of up to ₹5000, 40% from the lower income group with a monthly income between ₹5000 to ₹10000 and the remaining 4% comes from the middle income group with a monthly income of above ₹10000. The right to adequate housing establishes the need to develop affordable housing for all income groups by providing the citizens a greater expanse of policies and fiscal benefits to buy/build a house. “The Pradhan Mantri Awas Yojana (PMAY) and the Rajiv Awas Yojana (RAY) that precluded it, are initiatives of the Government of India which aim to provide affordable housing to the urban poor by the year 2022. The RAY scheme was launched in 2011, and amended into the PMAY in 2015. The interest rate for the PMAY scheme starts at an interest subsidy of 6.5 percent on housing loans availed upto a tenure of 15 years”3, these government initiatives attempt to generate positive externalities of consumption through housing. PMAY aims to develop affordable housing in a public-private sector partnership and promote affordable housing for urban poor through credit linked subsidy. However the rollout has faced multiple hurdles. “At this rate, it will take 66 years to achieve a target of 10 million units, 120 years to build 18 million units”.4
Another key component of the right to adequate housing is habitability of housing. According to the WHO, habitable houses should comply with health and safety standards; including providing the inhabitants with adequate space, “protection against cold, damp, heat, rain, wind or other threats to health and structural hazards.”1 Habitability ensures inhabitants the needed space to live in dignity and peace, as well as protection from natural elements, structural hazards and disease vectors which threaten their physical well-being. Indian habitability standards are developed by respective National and State housing agencies and lack international applicability. The right to adequate housing understands that humans are the direct beneficiary of habitability and that there is a need to evolve habitability standards that reflect the perceptions, expectation, and satisfaction of humans in line with their unique multi-cultural residential landscape.
“Urban inequality is a blight experienced by many cities, even in the developed world. In developing countries like India, these social and economic inequalities become even more pronounced, with living conditions in certain populations crossing the line to the abysmal”5. The Indian society is highly stratified and hierarchical in character. The stratified and hierarchical nature of Indian society involves institutional processes that economically and socially exclude, discriminate, isolate and deprive some groups on the basis of characteristics like caste, ethnicity or religious background. The right to adequate housing promotes the development of housing that is free from discriminatory practices against the disadvantaged or the marginalized. It tries to establish housing as a practice that does not restrict accessibility in any way, shape or form.
The right to adequate housing has an important focus on ‘location’, this not only establishes the need for available employment opportunities, health-care services, schools, childcare centres and other social facilities but also ensures that housing is not displaced in zones of extreme pollution or conflict. According to the National Disaster Management Plan 2019 (NDMP), 68% of India’s land is prone to drought, 60% to earthquakes, 12% to floods and 8% to cyclones, this makesIndia one of the most disaster prone countries in the world, affecting 85% of Indian geography and more than 50 million people. Considering the influence of social, cultural, climatic and economical factors, location becomes a key aspect in determining whether the conditions of adequate housing are being met. Furthermore, the right to adequate housing ensures the expression of cultural identity. Since culture is not a constant, it keeps changing and also accommodates changes. People tend to have changes in their aspirations — and accordingly culture, due to the influence from neighbouring cultures, education, globalisation, economic empowerment or other parameters. The expression of culture and its identity is also enshrined as a key element in determining the adequacy of housing.
“Human rights are interdependent, indivisible and interrelated. In other words, the violation of the right to adequate housing may affect the enjoyment of a wide range of other human rights and vice versa.”1 The World Health Organization has asserted that housing is the single most important environmental factor associated with disease conditions and higher mortality and morbidity rates. Having access to adequate, safe and secure housing substantially strengthens the likelihood of people being able to enjoy certain additional rights. Housing is a foundation from which other legal entitlements can be achieved which makes the right to adequate housing a fundamental right that needs to be recognized and practiced in equal spirits.
- Fact Sheet No. 21/Rev.1, The Right to Adequate Housing, Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights.
- Draft National Urban Sanitation Policy, 2007
- business-satndard.com_22May 2017
- Social Marginalisation in Urban India and the Role of the State, Observer Research Foundation, New Delhi, 2015
- Forced Evictions in India in 2019: An Unrelenting National Crisis, Housing and Land Rights Network, New Delhi, 2020
- Right to Shelter is just a Constitutional Right and not Fundamental Right : Part 1
- Basic Principles And Guidelines On Development Based Evictions And Displacement
Sandra Barclay is Principal of Barclay & Crousse Architecture, based in Lima, Peru. She co-founded Barclay & Crousse Architecture with Jean Pierre Crousse in Paris in 1994. Sandra teaches at the Pontificia Universidad Católica del Perú. She has represented Peru at the 13th Venice Biennale, and in the 2016 Co Curated the Peruvian Pavilion at the 15th Venice Biennale.
In 1993 Sandra received the Robert Camelot Prize for best Architectural Thesis. 2018 Architect of the Year Prize, Women in Architecture, Architectural Review, London. Honorary Fellow of the American Institute of Architects and Foreign Honorary member of the French Académie d’Architecture, 2019 Norman Foster Visiting Professor of Architectural Design, Yale University.
Barclay & Crousse Architecture studio was recognized by the 2018 Mies Crown Hall of the Americas Award and the first Oscar Niemeyer Prize, among other international awards. Their work has been acknowledged by the International Committee of Architectural Critics (CICA) with the 2013 Latin America Prize and the Peruvian Architecture National Prize in 2014 and 2018. Their projects have been exhibited and published worldwide.
- South American Architects Sandra Barclay and Gloria Cabral Win 2018 Women in Architecture Awards https://www.archdaily.com/890023/south-american-architects-sandra-barclay-and-gloria-cabral-win-2018-women-in-architecture-awards
Kapil Gupta is the co-founder of Serie Architects and Principal of Serie Mumbai. Kapil leads and manages Serie’s project portfolio in India with projects ranging across housing, commercial and institutional sectors. He is closely involved with the development of projects from inception to completion. He has written on the challenges of south Asian urbanisation and is currently involved with ecological and land regeneration strategies in India as a response to climate change.
He has served as a visiting critic at numerous schools in India and been on several jury panels for competitions and design awards including Archiprix in 2010. Gupta is currently the Charles Correa Design Chair at the Goa School of Architecture for 2020.
He graduated with honours from Sir JJ School of Architecture in 1996, Mumbai followed by postgraduate studies at the Architectural Association, London. He was a Director at the Urban Design Research Institute, Mumbai between 2003 and 2008, where he led India’s first entry to the Venice Architecture Biennale in 2006.
Bill McIlroy is an architect and urban designer, based in Boston, Massachusetts. He established with Nancy Shapero, a landscape architect, Shapero/McIlroy Design in 1990. The studio has designed and built projects ranging from houses and gardens, to buildings and landscapes for small institutions, to urban design interventions, most of which are embedded in the local community. He has been a visiting critic at Harvard’s GSD urban design reviews, MIT and other local design schools.
He studied architecture at the University of Toronto. He participated in Aldo van Eyck’s design studio at the University of Pennsylvania. He attended Harvard’s Graduate School of Design Urban Design program, graduating as the first recipient of the Druker Travelling Fellowship which enabled him, with Nancy Shapero, to visit India, Nepal, China and Japan. During this six month trip, through drawing, photography and mapping, he investigated, in a series of case studies, the transforming relationships between cityscape and landscape at their interface. The trip had a profound effect on his way of thinking about design, especially as it affects human experience, a view that he continues to carry forward in his design work today and in comments to students at their studio reviews.
Jagan Shah was the Director of National Institute of Urban Affairs, the premier thinktank associated with the Ministry of Urban Development, Government of India. He has 20 years of professional work experience in various aspects of urban development in India.
He taught at the School of Planning & Architecture (SPA) from 1998 till 2006. He was the Chief Executive of Urban Space Consultants, providing consultancy in policy formulation, spatial planning, heritage conservation, transportation and livelihoods development. He works as the Senior Infrastructure Adviser in the Department for International Development devised by the Government of UK, where he leads a programme to support the PPP Cell of the Indian Ministry of Finance and is devising a new programme for developing inclusive, investible and resilient cities.
He has been deeply involved in creating innovative urban plans, among such is the heritage plan for Jaipur, city development plans for 14 cities in Madhya Pradesh, Master Plan for Delhi, the National Urban Policy framework and the policy implementation of India’s Smart Cities Mission. Shah has authored Contemporary Indian Architecture and his writings have been published in leading journals in Indian and abroad, co-editor of Round, an annual journal of Asian writings on architecture.
- Achieving urban transformation
- Singaporeans don’t use the word smart, they talk about livable cities: NIUA Director
- Urban Resilience – a collaborative approach
Ilze Wolff co-directs Wolff Architects with Heinrich Wolff, a practice
concerned with an architecture of consequence.
In 2017 she received an International Prize for Scholarly Works in Modern and Contemporary Art and Architecture in Rome, for her book Unstitching Rex Trueform, the story of an African factory. In 2018 she was shortlisted for the Architectural Review’s Moira Gemmil award and between 2017-2019 she was a fellow at the University of the Western Cape’s, Centre for Humanities Research.
She co-founded Pumflet a publication for art and architecture, which has since received institutional support from William Kentridge’s Centre for the less good idea, the Chicago Architecture Biennial and formed part of the publishing against the grain exhibition at the Zeitz Mocaa Museum. Through the practice and with her colleagues at Wolff, their space in Bo-Kaap has hosted exhibitions, interventions, publications and talks in collaboration with artists, activists and scholars and in that way developing an enduring apublic culture around the city, space and personhood
The CCF Bioscope on Cities
This year, the Nagari Short Film Competition is looking for films that address the question,
“How could one tell the story of housing adequacy in urban India”?
India has the largest number of urban poor and landless people in the world. According to the 2011 census, approximately 13.75 million households, or approximately 65 – 70 million people, reside in urban slums. Homeless people, based on the 2011 census, are an additional 1.8 million. The numbers are staggering. In some cities, such as Mumbai, those residing in slums represent around 50% of its population. Housing, and more importantly adequate housing, is in a state of crisis in India – a case reinforced by the migrant exodus that we witnessed in Indian cities in March 2020, as a result of a national lockdown imposed in response to the COVID-19 pandemic.
Adequate housing was recognized as part of the right to an adequate standard of living, in the 1948 Universal Declaration of Human Rights. The Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights in their report on The Right to Adequate Housing have identified 7 elements that encompass the right to adequate housing.
- Legal security of tenure: Regardless of the type of tenure, all persons should possess a degree of security of tenure which guarantees legal protection against forced eviction, harassment and other threats;
- Affordability: Personal or household financial costs associated with housing should not threaten or compromise the attainment and satisfaction of other basic needs (for example, food, education, access to health care);
- Habitability: Adequate housing should provide for elements such as adequate space, protection from cold, damp, heat, rain, wind or other threats to health, structural hazards, and disease vectors;
- Availability of services, materials, facilities and infrastructure: Housing is not adequate if its occupants do not have safe drinking water, adequate sanitation, energy for cooking, heating and lighting, sanitation and washing facilities, means of food storage, refuse disposal, etc;
- Accessibility: Housing is not adequate if the specific needs of disadvantaged and marginalized groups are not taken into account (such as the poor, people facing discrimination; persons with disabilities, victims of natural disasters);
- Location: Adequate housing must allow access to employment options, health-care services, schools, child-care centres and other social facilities and should not be built on polluted sites nor in immediate proximity to pollution sources;
- Cultural adequacy: Adequate housing should respect and take into account the expression of cultural identity and ways of life.
For further information:
Fact Sheet No. 21/Rev.1, The Right to Adequate Housing, Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights.
The Human Rights to Adequate Housing and Land in India: Report to the United Nations Human Rights Council for India’s Third Universal Periodic Review
Competition Brief: The Nagari Short Film Competition
The competition brief is out!
Interested participants are required to fill the form and attach their CVs, a brief outline of the film script, and a note on the audio-visual treatment.
To Register for The Nagari Short Film Competition, click here.
For any queries, write to us at firstname.lastname@example.org
In order to combat the rapid spread of COVID-19 in India, the government has extended the nationwide lockdown up to 3rd May 2020.
One of the biggest concerns in the country right now is the distribution of food supplies and essential commodities. In Indian cities, with large income inequalities, servicing these huge numbers equitably becomes a logistical impossibility. Last-mile door-to-door services have become essential systems to get supplies to every individual.
With commodities becoming scarce, people of privilege start to hoard, and consequently, prices rise. It’s a self-fulfilling prophecy which affects the urban poor the most, many of whom work on a daily wage. This has resulted in a much-documented exodus of migrant workers from their workplace to their villages1. With inter-state movement seized, coupled with the lack of availability of labour — stocks of fresh food supplies are rapidly diminishing. Many local markets lie desolate — potential signs of an acute food shortage.
The lockdown has once again brought to the surface, the gross inequity in Indian cities. Millions of men, women and children are now dependent on the government or charitable trusts for every meal. Raghu Karnad writes in the New Yorker about how this time offers us an opportunity to rethink the way our cities work 2.
This re-imagination of Indian cities has been coming for a long time and has to be addressed on several verticals. One avenue which can be explored is the way the lockdown has prompted ( at least for the upper and middle class in Indian metro cities) the opportunity of new supply chains. The supply of produce that was previously zoned, distributed and procured at the end by consumers is now available every alternate day at one’s doorstep.
SUPPLY CHAINS IN TIMES OF CORONAVIRUS
A temporary market observing social distancing rules at Vasant Oscar, Mulund, Mumbai and pre-packaged vegetable orders (₹700) delivered together at Runwal Greens, Mulund, Mumbai.
Our tryst with COVID-19 has promoted previously unprecedented networks of independent, un-aided, customised supply chains that bind several small scale, last-mile service operations with the large-scale cross border movement of essential commodities.
Last-mile delivery of supplies is not new to our cities. India has had a long-standing system of daily fresh milk delivery. Families have independent relationships with local dairies — milk is delivered as per their required quantity, schedules and choice. In Goa, we have the “poder”, a bread delivery man who goes door to door twice a day delivering fresh bread to every household.
The current lock-down situation has coerced daily commodities like bread, eggs, fruits, vegetables and oil to be delivered in a similar fashion. The mercurial rise of e-commerce and delivery apps like Swiggy and Zomato has now set up systems of local delivery boys, App-based ordering and WhatsApp savvy hawkers. Some enterprising businesses have created supply chains based on orders, locations and timetables, creating a direct link with the customer. The increased logistical demand for this system has given impetus on communities scheduling and acquiring essentials together. , reducing the need to move around within the city.
SUPPLY CHAINS IN SUBURBAN MUMBAI
In this context, let’s discuss the case of Mulund (West) a suburb of Mumbai. Mulund is primarily a residential suburb, on the foothills of the Sanjay Gandhi National Park, it is dominated by large housing complexes that house the middle class, shopping complexes, fast food chains and recreational activities. A gridiron plan was designed by architects Crown & Carter in 1922, which extends from present-day Mulund railway station to Paanch Rasta road Junction in Mulund (West), housing the Mulund Market, the suburb is serviced by the Eastern Express Highway.
Due to the lockdown, the suburb has been cut-off from the highway — the supply chain which was previously centralized at the Mulund market has now been decentralised due to the collective efforts of the municipality, local police, retailers, vendors, society secretaries and residents. Internal circulation routes for supply trucks have been set, where every alternate day, residents receive essential supplies at a fixed time right outside their societies. The Mulund market has been declared a pedestrian zone, this decongests the route during essential supply hours. Local hawkers and temporary delivery services from pharmacies, supermarkets and grocery stores enable greater penetration of the supply chain. Moreover, these services enable the restriction of procurement-based mobility with great ease whilst maintaining social distancing. The police barricading combined with the efficiency of supply completely quarantined all mobility within smaller zones, and, till now, has succeeded in restricting the spread of the pandemic whilst producing avant-garde supply chains.
The following illustrations present new emerging delivery networks in Mulund, Mumbai. The red line illustrates the traditional method of procurement, propagating individual mobility, whereas the green line denotes the services that now coordinate the supply of essentials, focusing on groups of people based on their location.
Not so long ago, the world was looking into the possibility of drone deliveries, these systems require greater expenditure in the form of capital than of labour. The ease of access and fast, high precision delivery service shall definitely create an entirely new ethos of supply chains for essential products, health care emergencies, war-zones and remote locations.
Holistically speaking, when it comes to the contextual cases of third world metropolises like Mumbai, we can learn a lot from these avant-garde adaptations our supply chains have made. The patterns observed under the current COVID-19 lockdown suggest that zonal iterations to our current supply chains with local integration of distribution shall serve to present a great model even post the pandemic has eclipsed.
The avant-garde supply chains produced as a byproduct of COVID-19 illustrate the evolution of supply chains as a naturally decentralised model within the developing world.
THE CCF CHALLENGE:
We want to understand the supply chain in your neighbourhood. We challenge individuals to map:
- ‘New’ Supply chains that have emerged in their immediate surroundings.
- Your vision of the ‘Future Normal’ in commodity supply.
You can use any medium to represent — write, photograph, sketch, video, render or simply doodle! It would be great if you could accompany the mapping project with a brief write up that explains the context, your observations and predictions explaining the emergence of these avant-garde supply chains.
Use the hashtag #CCFSupplyChallenge and tag us @charlescorreafoundation on Instagram. We shall feature and discuss unique observations on our social media pages and website.
1. Article on the problems faced by migrant labourers by Sahil Joshi for India Today:
the charles correa foundation is grateful for the valuable support from
- Mrs. Monika Correa
The terraces and courtyards reflect Correa’s concern with progression through space – the maze or puzzle – where parts are casually revealed and the complex of internal streets act rather like a village layout. In this way the architect makes the building reflect Bhopal’s own organizational layout.
Bharat Bhavan, one of the key projects of Charles Correa, has been listed amongst the ‘Top 20 Most Visited AD Architecture Classics’ by ArchDaily.
The Charles Correa Foundation is proud to publish a map of his work. This map plots buildings designed by Correa in his six decades of practice; projects built worldwide, though many of them in India.
We believe that the theories discussed by Charles Correa in his many writings can be best understood through his built work. We hope that this map can help interested visitors locate these buildings, visit them, and understand them in their context.
In case the map or relevant cover images fail to load, you may have to clear your browser cache: First, ensure that the browser is open and selected, and press Ctrl-Shift-Delete (Windows) or Command-Shift-Delete (Mac), then you may refresh the page and view at your convenience.
The list is arranged chronologically and buildings are tagged by typology.
Commercial Leisure Housing Institutions Urbanisation
There are yet a few projects by Correa that we know were built, but due to rapid urbanisation all around, we are now unable to locate. They are:
- Plutonium Plant, Mumbai, Maharashtra
- Humanities Department, Vallabh Vidyanagar, Anand, Gujarat
- Suhrid Geigy – Laboratory and Processing Plant, Mumbai, Maharashtra
- Palm Avenue House, Kolkata, West Bengal
- Sen-Raleigh Polytechnic, Asansol, West Bengal
- Thakore House, Mumbai, Maharashtra
- Carbide Battery Plant, Hyderabad, Telangana
- Dutta House, New Delhi
- Ferreira House, Mumbai
- Menezes House, Pune, Maharashtra,
- Gobhai House, Golvad, Dahanu, Maharashtra
If you could help us locate these buildings, please send us a recent image and a location pin to email@example.com with the subject “CCA Map: name of building“
Also, please let us know over email or in the comments below, if you think we have left out any of his built projects. We hope this map will grow to become an inventory of the many buildings that Charles Correa designed.
Do the ruins of an 18th-century chapel and convent feature in the aspirations of a village, under pressure from the growing city?
Based on a talk at CCF by;
Fernando Velho, Architect
Erica De Mello, Student at Goa College of Architecture
In the previous blog ‘A Search for Commons in the Pressure of Growing Cities’ – the problems and pressures on the Goan village of Chimbel were illustrated. Within that context, there arose a need for a public space that could serve as a commons for the village.
This blog is the first part of a trilogy about a village, its residents, and the ruins of a chapel. The Charles Correa Foundation has been actively involved in assisting the villagers in their project, and our combined efforts have recently yielded positive results. You can read about it on the news section of our website or Aliya Abreu’s article in the Goan Everyday.
AND WHY WE SHOULD CARE,
by Aliya Abreu,
in The Goan Everyday – Sunday June 30, 2019
TCP MINISTER DECIDES TO ACCEPT THE REQUEST MADE BY CHARLES CORREA FOUNDATION AND ANA GRACIAS
The Conservation Committee of the department of Town and Country Planning
(TCP) headed by the TCP minister decided to accept the request made by Charles
Correa Foundation and Ana Gracias ( leader of a citizens’ movement from Chimbel) and list the ruins of Nossa Senhora do Carmo, on the conservation list of the Goa Land Development and Building Construction Regulations.
The CCF team discusses the parking issue in Goa, and the state’s much-awaited response.
If you have ever found yourself driving past your destination and circling around for that elusive space free of a ‘No Parking’ sign (or ignoring that), you are part of an overwhelming majority in Goa. The situation isn’t unusual in a state where the annual vehicle growth rate is almost 10 times that of the population growth rate (2001-2011) (Source: Draft Parking Policy, IPSCL).
Source: Draft Parking Policy, IPSCL
This phenomenal increase in traffic volume coupled with limited road space in major cities in the state account for the state’s parking woes. An unreliable public transport system and the general attitude towards car ownership, with its attached social status, evince that, without an efficient implementation of a holistic parking policy, the problem will not go away any time soon. The problem isn’t without irony: according to the Central Road Research Institute, an average car’s steering time in only 400 hours a year. That means a typical vehicle stays parked 95% of the time!
The past decade’s figures reveal the extent of the problem: with a 14.5 lakh population (Source: Census 2011) and a whopping 54.8 lakh tourist footfall in 2018 alone (Source: Department of Tourism, Govt. of Goa), it is evident that Goa’s thriving tourism industry heavily relies on the rental automobile industry. Where is the road space for all these vehicles?
Two-wheelers encroach upon footpaths, making pedestrians vulnerable to moving vehicles on the carriageway.
The conventional methods of dealing with parking have largely been to increase the supply to meet the demand, by providing additional infrastructure for the driver rather than providing enough choices for the commuters, in terms of alternative public transport. The former, a limited approach, only leads to a system which will be insufficient in due course of time as it attracts more and more vehicles, as against a fixed parameter of road capacity.
To tackle parking, it is important to derive logical solutions to parking, based on its types: on-street parking and off-street parking. In its proposed Decongestion Model for Panaji City Centre in 2014, CCF called for delineation of on-street parking and a paid parking strategy. A significant parking fee for visitors encourages them to park off-street, in strategically located multi-storey parking structures, and use a regulated hop-on hop-off bus system into the city. The Model recommended a discounted parking allowance for shop owners and free parking for residents.
CCF’s proposed off-street parking management in the Decongestion Model of the Panaji City Centre
CCF’s proposed on-street parking management in the Decongestion Model of the Panaji City Centre
In the Draft Parking Policy, Imagine Panaji Smart City Limited has envisioned the following parking management strategies:
- Delineation of on-street parking
- Introduction of parking reservations on streets
- Pricing for on-street parking
- Pricing for off-street parking
- Parking permit schemes for residential and work zones
- Use of technology for Smart Parking
- Instituting a Parking Cell for enforcement
- Reconsidering building regulations to reduce parking minimums
- Introduction of Proof of Parking attached to the owner’s residential location
- Planning parking for the relatively sustainable electric vehicles
Source: Parking Basics, Institute for Transportation and Development Policy
The Smart City parking proposal reconsiders the status quo: the automobile should not dominate the street. With an aim to prioritise the safe movement of people, services and goods on the road network, it seeks to enhance walkability of the city.
With demand-based pricing formulated on various factors—land value, vehicle type and duration of parking, parking district, and existing demand in the parking—the policy “enhances turnover of parking bays and ensures access to limited on-street parking in high parking demand areas.” The proposal also provides for any plans for the future of mobility: electric vehicles, which can reduce greenhouse gas emissions.
Source: Parking Basics, Institute for Transportation and Development Policy
The implementation of such parking solutions has a rough road ahead. The pay-parking system, introduced in Panaji in 2016, failed to bring any discipline to the city’s chaotic and mismanaged traffic and was discontinued in 2017 after the expiry of the contract awarded to a private operator. (Source: Herald Goa) However, the Corporation of the City of Panaji has decided, in March 2019, to reinstate the system using its workers to implement it (Source: Times of India Goa). Other tourist-attracting centres, such as Candolim and Old Goa, have also implemented the system to restrict unregulated parking and gain revenue.
Over recent decades, it has become evident that parking is an issue constantly and disproportionately growing with city size, in India and across the world. With timely implementation of the parking policy in its major urban centres, Goa has the chance to buck the trend, and ‘park’ the issue at the kerb!
India’s most iconic modern architect Charles Correa had a prolific career, having designed almost 100 buildings in India alone during his lifetime, but whether it was low-income housing or luxury condos, Correa maintained a universal approach that respected the local conditions, met the practical needs of its inhabitants and acknowledged the spiritual nature and beauty of his country.
Read the full article on architect Charles Correa by Charlotte Luxford here.
Status: Final Evaluation Report submitted via press conference
Year of Completion: 2017